Cosmology is a branch of astronomy that deals with the origin, structure and space-time relationships of the universe. It is derived from two Greek words, cosmos meaning "universe" or "order," and logos meaning "word."
“ Scientific cosmology examines the large-scale structure of the universe on the basis of observation made with optical, radio, infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray telescopes. It analyzes those results on the basis of our understanding of physics, as tested in the laboratory and against data from the solar system. ”
- Main Article: Creation cosmology
To creationists this study encompasses not only the observable physical or natural world but also the metaphysical means by which God governs and sustains creation. Cosmology therefore deals with time and seeks to understand God's relationship with His creation, from the beginning to the end of time.
- Main Article: C-decay
A number of theorists suggest that the speed of light is continuously decaying and hence was far faster during creation than it is today. This would explain the age of the universe (and earth) due to radiometric dating, and also indicates that the doppler shift, the common method of dating far objects, is not caused by kinematic or relativistic redshift. This cosmology has the merit of explaining quantized redshift, which most present cosmologies fail to explain.
White Hole Cosmology
- Main Article: White hole cosmology
A white hole near the earth (or the center of the galaxy) at the beginning of the universe has been proposed to explain the existence of distant starlight in a young universe. This would cause, due to relativistic considerations, a change in apparent time. While this model is acceptable to those assuming a creationist paradigm, it has been attacked on anthropocentric grounds by secular science. Russell Humphreys, the author of this cosmology, has been criticized by those upset by his model.
Cosmic Center Model
Robert Gentry has also suggested an anthropocentric cosmology, based on a static universe with a shell of matter creating cavity energy in our region. His theory is sophisticated and appeals to a gravitational and relativistic redshift caused by vacuum gravity repulsion. His theory is explained in detail in several papers available at the Orion Foundation. Andrew Repp, a creationist, has posted a challenge to his cosmology in the Creation Society Research Quarterly. Gentry responds to this and other criticism in Big Bang Collapse  and other reports found on his Published Reports Page . Brian Pitts has also criticized Gentry's model.
- Main Article: Cosmological relativity
Dr. John Hartnett has developed a young Earth creation cosmology based on Dr. Moshe Carmeli's theory of Cosmological relativity. Like Russell Humphreys' white hole cosmology, Dr. Hartnett's model uses time dilation in a bounded universe. But this dilation results from a rapid expansion of space rather than the gravity of a white hole.
Hartnett’s cosmology readily fits and explains the large scale structure of the universe without either dark mater or dark energy.
- Main Article: Geocentricity
Beginning with Aristotle, Western philosophers typically believed that the earth was the center of the cosmos. This idea, called geocentricity, followed naturally from the intuitive appreciation of the Earth as a fixed object and of the "natural places" of the elements (believed to be earth, water, air, and fire). Yet as astronomical observations became more sophisticated and precise, this system became less satisfactory. The moon, of course, describes a circular path around the earth. The sun could also be described as orbiting the earth, if one believed that the sun was made entirely of fire and had no appreciation of the sun's tremendous mass in relation to the mass of the earth (an insight that would probably have to wait for Sir Isaac Newton before enjoying wide appreciation). But the other planets do not move, in relation to the earth, with the regularity with which they move in relation to the sun. At least one of the planets (Mars) appears to stop and reverse direction in relation to the earth.
In the centuries following Aristotle, and Hipparchus, who developed the first technical geocentric model, scientists would make at least two attempts to solve the mathematical paradoxes before Nicolaus Copernicus would advocate discarding geocentricity entirely.
Claudius Ptolemy was the first astronomer to attempt to solve the problem. He began with the system of concentric spheres invented by Hipparchus and added several mathematical modifications to explain the pecular irregular movements. In his system, the positional elements of each celestial body were:
- The eccentric, or the displacement of the center of the body's heavenly sphere from the earth itself.
- The epicycle, a smaller "circle upon a circle" centered on a point on the great sphere. The body involved moved on the epicycle, and the epicycle's center orbited the earth.
- The equant, or the displacement of the center of motion of the epicycle (above) from the geometric center of the heavenly body's sphere.
With this system, Ptolemy could predict the motions of the Moon, the planets Mercury and Venus, the Sun, and the planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn to the limits of the accuracy of astronomical observations of his day. But in the process he violated Aristotle's strict geocentrism and also violated Occam's razor. This was the primary reason why Ptolemy's contemporaries were not completely satisfied with his system, even before the telescope would destroy the Ptolemaic system's predictive value.
Tycho Brahe developed some of the first instruments that enabled astronomers to achieve previously unprecedented accuracy. He realized early that the Ptolemaic system simply could not predict the motions of the celestial bodies once those motions were known with the enhanced accuracy now achievable. Yet he was not willing, as Copernicus was, to discard the notion of the earth as the center of the universe. Doing so would violate Aristotelian physics, with its tremendous emphasis on the "natural place" of all things.
So Tycho compromised. In his system, the Earth remained at the center, with the Moon and Sun orbiting the earth and the fixed stars in a sphere centered at the earth. But the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the one comet then known, orbited the sun, not the earth.
To secular scientists, cosmology is the study of the origin, current state, and future of the cosmos. It applies astrophysical measurements and analysis to understand the history, structure, and constituent dynamics of our universe.
- Main Article: Big bang
The most widely accepted theory on the origin of the universe is called the Big Bang. It posits that all of the matter in the universe started as a point of infinite density and temperature known as a singularity. It is believed that approximately 13.7 billion years ago this singularity experienced a rapid inflation of matter that eventually evolved into stars, galaxies, and planets. The Big Bang was not an explosion in the conventional sense of the term, but an expansion of space and time. However, like an explosion, it was highly energetic and chaotic.
- Main Article: String theory
String theory is either "a theory in physics [under which] all elementary particles are manifestations of the vibrations of one-dimensional strings." or a "concept that all particles can be represented as strings or string-loops of incredibly minute length, oscillating at various frequencies." Such strings, the theory states, exist within ten or eleven dimensions of which six or seven are inconceivably minute structures attached to every point in our four-dimensional spacetime.
String theory is assumed to explain everything from relativity and quantum mechanics to the very existence of basic particles. It is now a main focus of physics. Although it is celebrated in the modern scientific establishment one can clearly tell that it deals more with origins science than with operational science. One of the most prominent followers and now sceptics of string theory is Lee Smolin, who in his book, The Trouble with Physics as Martin Gardner states in a review, now says that string theory is
“ ... only a set of curious conjectures in search of a theory. True, it has great explanatory power, but a viable theory must have more than that. It must make predictions which can be falsified or confirmed. ”
- No place like home: Our lonesome solar system by Lee Billings. May 11, 2011
- Gliese 581g, Newly Found 'Habitable' Planet, May Not Exist Francesco Pepe, who works with the Geneva Observatory and used the HARPS instrument on the La Silla telescope at the European Southern Observatory in Chile, said he and his team could not find the planet or confirm its existence. Epoch Time, Oct 12, 2010.
- Freshly Discovered Earth-Like Planet Orbiting Nearby Star Could Be the First Truly Habitable Exoplanet A couple of math geeks recently calculated that the discovery of the first “habitable” exoplanet would be announced in May of next year -- but a few stargazers from UC Santa Cruz and their colleagues simply couldn’t wait that long. By Clay Dillow Posted 09.29.2010. Popular Science.
- Big Bang Was Followed by Chaos, Mathematical Analysis Shows Seven years ago Northwestern University physicist Adilson E. Motter conjectured that the expansion of the universe at the time of the big bang was highly chaotic. Now he and a colleague have proven it using rigorous mathematical arguments. ScienceDaily. Sep. 8, 2010.
- Stephen Hawking says universe not created by God Physics, not creator, made Big Bang, new book claims. Professor had previously referred to 'mind of God'. guardian.co.uk. September 2, 2010
- Fate of Universe revealed by galactic lens Researchers conclude that the Universe will probably expand forever ending in a dead wasteland with a temperature approaching what scientists term ‘absolute zero’. BBC News, 19 August 19, 2010
- Search for Intelligent Aliens Takes Center Stage This Weekend at SETIcon SETI Institute celebrates the 50th anniversary of its mission to scan the universe for signs of intelligent extraterrestrial life. Space.com, August 12 2010.
- Chlorine study suggests moon is dry after all The moon's interior may not be that wet after all, despite some recent studies that have suggested otherwise. A new analysis of Apollo rocks backs the old idea of a waterless world. NewScientist. August 2010. 
- Nemesis reconsidered. An astrophysicist and a paleontologist, after re-examining the fossil record, now propose abandoning the Nemesis hypothesis, on the theory that any companion star to the Sun ought to have had its orbit changed in the last 500 million years and thus could not have caused extinction-level events as regularly as clockwork during that time. Solar and Stellar Astrophysics. July 2, 2010.
- Evidence for dark matter and energy found lacking. A team of astronomers at Durham University (UK) re-examined the data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and found that previously-described evidence for an acceleration effect due to dark energy is nothing more than an error of measurement. Creationism Examiner. June 15, 2010.
- 'Dark' matter and energy 'proof' exaggerated—again. Astronomers find the same apparent ratio of "dynamical" to "luminous" mass at the edge of the universe as near to us. As ever, they insist that this somehow "proves" the existence of "dark matter"—when in fact it proves no such thing. Creationism Examiner, 26 January 2010
- ↑ Nancy Murphey and George F. R. Ellis, On the Morality of the Universe: Theology, Cosmology and Ethics (Fortress Press, 1996), pg. 39
- ↑ Collapse of Big Bang Cosmology and the Emergence of the New Cosmic Center Model of the Universe Robert V. Gentry. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 56, 4 (December 2004)
- ↑ Published Reports by Earth Science Associates
- ↑ God and Cosmos by John Byl. p17-18
- ↑ "Ptolemaic System." The Galileo Project, Rice University, Houston, Texas. Accessed April 15, 2008.
- ↑ The six planets named are the only planets that the ancients knew; later astronomers would discover Uranus and Neptune and the dwarf planets Ceres, Pluto, and Eris.
- ↑ "Tycho Brahe." The Galileo Project, Rice University, Houston, Texas. Accessed April 15, 2008.
- ↑ "Entry for String Theory," Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary. Accessed April 15, 2008.
- ↑ "New String-Theory Notion Redefines the Big Bang." <Physorg.com>, March 31, 2006. Accessed April 15, 2008.
- ↑ Gardner, Martin. "M is for messy." The New Criterion, 25:90, April 2007. Accessed April 15, 2008.
- The Angular Size of the Moon and Other Planetary Satellites: An Argument For Design by Danny Faulkner, Creation Research Society Quarterly 35(1) June 1998.
- Astronomical Problems Oard, M.J., 1995. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 9(1):5–6
- Astronomy FAQ by Answers in Genesis
- Astrophysical Science from In the Beginning by Walter Brown
- Comets and the Age of the Solar System by Danny Faulkner, Journal of Creation 11(3):264–273, December 1997.
- The Current State of Creation Astronomy by Danny Faulkner (4th International Conference on Creationism, 1998)
- Extrasolar planets suggest our solar system is unique and young by Rod Bernitt, Journal of Creation 17(1):11–13, April 2003.
- Toward a Creationist Astronomy by Danny Faulkner, Creation Research Society Quarterly 28(3) December 1991.
- The young faint sun paradox and the age of the solar system by Danny Faulkner
- Unhidden by Don Richardson, Xulon Press, 2009, 228 pages. ISBN:978-1607912453
Books and Videos
- Astronomy and the Bible book by Don DeYoung
- The Astronomy Book book by Jonathan Henry
- Creation Astronomy video by Jason Lisle
- Taking Back Astronomy book by Jason Lisle
- Creation Astronomy book by Jill Whitlock, Felice Gerwitz
- Universe by Design book by Danny Faulkner
- The Privileged Planet By Guillermo Gonzalez and Jay W. Richards
Creationist Perspectives on Physics, Cosmology, or
the Big Bang
(Young Universe unless specified)
- A Brief Look at A Brief History of Time (Hawking's) (Old Universe) by Hugh Ross
- A History and Analysis of the 15.7 Light-Year Universe (Old Universe) by Perry Phillips Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 40.1:19-23 (3/1988)
- A Scientific Critique of the Big Bang by Andrew Rigg
- A Scientific Examination by Joseph Mastropaolo and Karl Priest
- A Second Look at Supernova Remnants, by Jon Covey
- A Short Course in the G and MA-model as They Relate to Theology by Robert A. Herrmann PhD
- A Standard Unification for All Physical Theories by Robert Herrmann PhD
- Age of the Universe, by Jon Covey
- All Spaced Out by Henry M. Morris
- An Accelerating Universe, or Light Slowing Down? by David Plaisted
- Are Stars Forming Today by Ron Samec
- Big bang by Dr Luke Randall (C. Biol., M.I. Biol. M.Sc., Ph.D)
- Big Bang Breakthrough- Ripples Reach Headlines (Old Universe) by Hugh Ross
- Big Bang Theory - Major Problems
- Big Bang Theory Under Fire by William C. Mitchel
- Bumps in the Big Bang by D. Russell Humphreys. ICR Impact 233
- Common Sense Science - Spinning Ring Model of the Atom
- Cosmology and Gravitation by Neville T. Jones
- Creation and Big Bang Cosmology by William Lane Craig
- Creation, Time, and 'Apparent Age (Old Universe) by Clarence Menninga, Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 40.3:160-162 (9/1988)
- Dark Matter by Don DeYoung CRSQ Volume 36 No. 4 March 2000
- Did the Universe have a Beginning by Tom Flandern, Meta Research
- Does God Expect Man to be Able to Tell Time? The Age of the Earth & the Future of the Earth by James Sundquist
- Dr. Robert A. Herrmann's General Web Site (prof at Naval Academy)
- A U-Cosmology by Robert A. Herrmann Ph. D.
- General Relativity and Possible Contrary Predictions by Robert A. Herrmann Ph. D.
- Science Declares Our Universe IS Intelligently Designed by Robert A. Herrmann Ph. D.
- Simplifying the Technical Aspects of the G, D-world, MA-models and U-cosmology by Robert A. Herrmann Ph. D.
- Solutions to the "General Grand Unification Problem," and the Questions "How Did Our Universe Come Into Being?" and "Of What is Empty Space Composed?" by Robert A. Herrmann PhD
- The Refutation of Paul Davies' Turing Machine Hypothesis and All That This Hypothesis Implies by Robert A. Herrmann PhD
- Evidence for a Young Sun by Keith Davies. ICR Impact 276
- Evolutionist science journal gives exciting support to creationist cosmology! by Carl Wieland October 2003
- From the Small Carechism to the Big Bang (Old Universe) by George Murphy Glaube und Denken (10.Jahrgang 1997), pp.29-45.
- Frontiers of Physics by Don DeYoung. ICR Impact 174
- Galaxy-Quasar ‘Connection’ Defies Explanation by Andrew Snelling Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 11(3):254–255, 1997
- Geomagnetism and the Age of the Solar System PowerPoint Slide Seminar by Wayne Spenser
- Have Computers Discovered the "Long Day" of Joshua? by Don Deyoung
- How can light get to us from stars which are millions of light years away in a universe which the Bible claims is only thousands of years old? by ChristianAnswers.Net
- How can we see distant stars in a young Universe The Answers Book Chapter 5
- How the Bible Defeats Science by Victor McAllister
- Hubble, Hubble, 'big bang' in trouble? By Dr. Carl Wieland, Creation Ex Nihilo 18(4):26-29
- Implications of Non-Constant Light Velocity by Lamber Dolphin
- Is the Moon really Old by Don DeYoung
- Is the Sun An Age Indicator? by Don B. DeYoung and David E. Rush
- Is the Universe Showing It's Age?, by Jon Covey
- Mathematics, Cosmology, and the Contingent Universe (Old Universe) by Bruce Hedman Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 41.2:99-103 (6/1989)
- Modern Mathematics - Its Relation to Physical Science and Theology by Robert Herrmann PhD
- Modern Science Finds God - Islamic-World.net
- Moon Dust and the Age of the Solar System by Dr. Andrew A. Snelling and David E. Rush, Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 7(1):2-42, 1993
- New Stars, New Planets? by Don DeYoung. ICR Impact 274
- On the Constancy of the Speed of Light by Alan Montgomery and Lambert Dolphin
- Phi & Fibonacci Anomalies
- Physics and the Bible: Exploding Planets and Ancient Catastrophes - Lambert Dolphin
- Physics and the Mind of God: The Templeton Prize Address by Paul Davies
- Quantum Gravity and the Origin of the Universe (Old Universe) by Hugh Ross
- Quantum Mechanics, a Modern Goliath (Old Universe) by Hugh Ross
- Randomness and Evolutionary Cosmology - A Strong Delusion by Robert A. Herrmann PhD
- Reports of the Death of Speed of Light Decay Are Premature by Bowden
- Robert Herrmann's NSP World by Wayne Spenser
- Saturn Rings - Short-lived and Young by Andrew Snelling
- Science Declares the Universe is Intelligently Designed by Robert A. Herrmann PhD
- Scriptural Physics: the application of scriptural principles to the study of physics
- Seven Years of Starlight and Time by Russell Humphreys
- Short Period Comets Problem (for Evolutionists) by Robert Newton
- Simplifying the Technical Aspects of G, MA-models and the U-Cosmology by Robert A. Herrmann PhD
- Solar Neutrinos - The Critical Shortfall Still Elusive by Andrew Snelling
- Solar System Geometry - A case for Intelligent Design
- Space and Time in the Genesis Cosmogony - Meredith G. Kline.
- Spiral Galaxies and Supernova Remnant by Russell Humphreys
- Speed of light slowing down after all by Carl Wieland
- Star Formation, by Jon Covey
- Starlight Wars: Starlight and Time Withstands Attacks by Russell Humphreys
- Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God Henry "Fritz" Schaefer III
- The Alleged Evolutionary Origins of the Universe and Life
- The Big Bang - (Old Universe) Hawking's - PBS
- The Big Bang Theory--A Biblical Critique by Bert Thompson, Brad Harrub, and Branyon May Reason & Revelation, July 2003, 23:65-71
- The Big Bang Theory--A Scientific Critique [Part I] by Bert Thompson, Brad Harrub, and Branyon May. Reason & Revelation, May 2003, 23:32-34,36-47
- The Big Bang Theory Collapses by Duane Gish. ICR Impact 216
- The Big Bang No Elephants Allowed By Kevin Miller
- The Creation of Planetary Magnetic Fields by D. Russell Humphreys CRSQ Volume 21, Number 3
- The Earth's Magentic Field is Still Losing Energy by D. Russell Humphreys CRSQ Volume 39, Number 1
- The Earth's Magnetic Field is Young by Russell Humphreys. ICR Impact 242
- The Existence and Origin of Extrasolar Planets by Wayne R. Spencer TJ 15(1):17-25
- The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe William Lane Craig
- The God of the Universe by H. Donald Daae, P.Geol.
- The Hubble Law by Don DeYoung
- The Nature of the Universe Cosmology Solved Great Debate' in Astronomy October 4th, 1998 in Washington, DC
- The Origin & History of the Universe Day-age creation concept by H. Donald Daae
- Orion Foundation - Exposing the Flaws in the Big Bang Theory
- Physics4U.Info Resource site by the Calvin School of Apologetics
- The Principle of Least Astonishment (rapid magnetic reversals) by Andrew Snelling
- The Search for New Planets by Don DeYoung
- The Sun is Shrinking by Russel Akridge. ICR Impact 82
- The Vacuum, Light Speed, and the Redshift by Barry Setterfield
- The Windows of Heaven and the Physics of Creation by Brian Davis
- The Wondrous Design and Non-random Character of Chance Events by Robert A. Herrmann PhD
- Time and Eternity by Lambert Dolphin
- Timelessness and Creation by William Graig
- Top Ten Problems with the Big Bang by Meta Research
- Was There a Big Bang, by David Berlinski, February 1998
- The Weathermate by Stephen Ahn's (US NWS Meteorologist)
- What Brings a World into Being (role of information in
creation) by David Berlinski
- Stephen Meyer- The New Cosmology
- Stephen Meyer- The New Cosmology- Theistic Implications
- Stephen Meyer- Quantum Cosmology
We know next to nothing about virtually everything. It is not necessary to know the origin of the universe; it is necessary to want to know. Civilization depends not on any particular knowledge, but on the disposition to crave knowledge. -George F. Will
[The Big Bang] “…represents the instantaneous suspension of physical laws, the sudden, abrupt flash of lawlessness that allowed something to come out of nothing. It represents a true miracle---transcending physical principles….” Paul Davies, The Edge of Infinity (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981), p161.
[The Big Bang] “…is only a myth that attempts to say how the universe came into being….” Hannes Alfvén (Nobel Prize winning physicist). The Big Bang Never Happened, by Eric Lerner. Discover 9 (June 1988), p. 78.