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Anamolously Occurring Fossils

by John Woodmorappe

Creation Research Society Quarterly
Volume 18(4), March 1982

This table is a compilation of over 200 published instances of anomalously occurring fossils. At left is the kind of fossil(s) involved followed by the accepted age of occurrence, the instance of anomalous occurrence, its locality, and the reference. Instances were tabulated as separate entries when they involved: 1) different fossils (usually), 2) different "proper" ages, 3) different anomalous ages, or 4) different geographical locations (different nations, provinces, sedimentary basins, etc.) The instances entered under references 70, 73, 77, 78, 88, 100, and 150 are subaqueous occurrences (deep marine) offshore marine, or lacustrine): most others involve sedimentary lithologies on land. References 70, 17, 72, 82, 84, 89, 96, 147, 148, 153, and 160 are "downwash," "infiltration," or supposed "contamination." Most other entries are .,reworking" of fossils into younger-age beds. A few of the entries in this table are claimed by the cited authors to be possible stratigraphic-range extensions rather than necessarily "reworking". This table does not include fossils of clearly secondary position (such as fossils within constituents of conglomerates and the very many instances of Phanerozoic fossils in Pleistocene glacial till).

Additional Resources

Type of fossil Proper age Found in Location Reference
Foraminifers Pleistocene Tertiary Atlantic Ocean  70
Pollen Tertiary Quaternary Boikow, Poland  146
Pollen Tertiary Cretaceous East Netherlands  147
Mammal bones Tertiary (late) Tertiary (early) Kazakhstan, USSR  148
Algae (?) Tertiary Cretaceous France  71
Foraminifers Tertiary Cretaceous Nigeria  72
Nannoplankton Tertiary (lower) Tertiary (higher) Tabcla, Syria  164
Spores Tertiary (recent) Permian Southland, New Zealand  165
Spores Tertiary Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR  166
Foraminifers Tertiary Cretaceous North Italy  167
Pollen Tertiary Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR  168
Palm wood Tertiary Jurassic Utah, USA  169
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Trinidad, West Indies  206
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Victoria, Australia  207
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Hungary  208
Nannoplankton Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Romania  209
Spores Tertiary (early) Jurassic Louisiana-Texas, USA  210
Mammal bones Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Northeast Siberia, USSR  ?
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Ionian Sea  212
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary West Israel  213
Coccoliths Cretaceous Tertiary Crimea, USSR  214
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Kazan, USSR  215
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary British Columbia, Canada  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Arctic Canada  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Fushun, China  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Shandong, China  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary South Coastal China  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Spit/bergen, Norway  217
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Ural Mts., USSR  217
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary West Siberia, USSR  217
Dinoflagellate Cretaceous Tertiary Australia 170
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Glogow, Poland 171
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Alabama, USA  172
Nannoflora Cretaceous Tertiary Zinda Pir, W. Pakistan  173
Pollen Cretaceous Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR  168
Nannoflora Cretaceous Tertiary Tang-E-Bijar, Iran  174
Foraminifers Cretaceous Jurassic Scania, Sweden  175
Pollen Cretaceous Cambrian Holy Cross Mts., Poland  176
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Ukraine, USSR  177
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Utah, USA  149
Spores Cretaceous Pleistocene Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary West Germany  151
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Czechosiovakia  152
Foraminifers Cretaceous Quaternary Adelie Coast, Antarctica  73
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Austria  74
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Sweden  75
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Alps.Carpalhians, Europe  76
Nannofossils Cretaceous Tertiary west, southwest Pacific  77
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Louisiana, USA  78
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Venezuela  79
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Wyoming, USA  79
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary California, USA  80
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Netherlands  81
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Utah, USA  81
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary England  75
Pollen Jurassic Permian Sariz, Antalya, Turkey  82
Spores Jurassic Tertiary Isle of Mull, Scotland  83
Spores Jurassic Precambrian Ukraine. USSR  84
Coccoliths Jurassic Silurian North Africa  153
Pollen Jurassic Tertiary Utah, USA  149
Spores Jurassic Cretaceous Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Pollen Jurassic Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Dinoflagellate Jurassic Cretaceous California, USA  154
Dinoflagellate Jurassic Tertiary California, USA  154
Spores Jurassic Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Spores Jurassic Triassic Northeast Siberia, USSR 218
Pollen Jurassic Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR  168
Spores "Mesozoic" Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR  166
Spores Jurassic Permian Northeast Siberia, USSR  218
Spores Jurassic Cambrian Northeast Siberia, USSR  218
Spores Triassic Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  237
Spores Triassic (and/or older) Jurassic Yukon, Canada  178
Spores Triassic Cretaceous Alberta, Canada 219  219
Ostracodes Triassic Tertiary Hungary  85
Spores Triassic Jurassic Andoya, Norway  86
Conodonts Triassic Cretaceous Cameroons  87
Conodonts Triassic Jurassic Japan  87
Spores Triassic Tertiary Kutch, India 155
Pollen Triassic Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada   ISO
Pollen Triassic Tertiary Utah, USA  149
Spores Triassic Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Pollen "Mesozoic" Tertiary Atlantic Ocean  88
Spores "Mesozoic" Tertiary Hungary  83
Brachiopods Permian Triassic Salt Range, Pakistan  142
Conodonts Permian Triassic Salt Range, Pakistan  142
Pollen Permian Triassic Utah, USA  149
Spores Permian Cretaceous Kutch, India  156
Conodonts Permian Triassic Akasaka, Japan  157
Spores Permian Tertiary Kerala, India  155
Spores Permian Tertiary Kutch, India  155
Spores Permian Cretaceous Madhya Pradesh, India  155
Pollen Permian Tertiary Nagaland, India  158
Spores Permian Cretaceous Alberta, Canada  219
Spores Permian Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  238
Fusulinids Permian Triassic Mine, Japan  180
Pollen Permian Triassic Southeast Siberia, USSR  220
Pollen Permian Tertiary Assam, India  158
Pollen Permian Tertiary Maghalaya, India  159
Spores Permian Triassic Somerset, England  19
Pollen Permian Jurassic Kutch, India  91
Pollen Permian Tertiary South Australia  91
Pollen Permian Cretaceous Victoria, Australia  91
Ammonoids Permian Triassic KapStosch, Creenland  92
Spores Permian Tertiary Hungary  83
Spores Permian Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Spores Permian Devonian Canning Basin, Australia  89
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Poland  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Sweden  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic England  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Scotland  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Latvia, USSR  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Denmark  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Baltic Russia  93
Spores Carboniferous Tertiary Arkansas, USA  93
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Fusulinids Carboniferous Pleistocene Utah, USA  89
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Devon, England  95
Spores Carboniferous Precambrian Onega, USSR  96
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Linlburg, Netherlands  91
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Krakow, Poland  97
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Hungary  84
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Alabama, USA  84
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Donets Basin, USSR  84
Pollen Carboniferous Jurassic Donets Basin, USSR  84
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Germany  93
Spores Carboniferous Permian Pakistan  93
Acritarchs Carboniferous Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada  150
Pollen Carboniferous Devonian Missouri-Iowa, USA  160
Pollen Carboniferous Cretaceous Montana, USA  221
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Montana, USA  221
Conodonts Carboniferous Devonian Craz/Styria, Austria  222
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Southeast Siberia, USSR  220
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Alberta, Canada  219
Conodonts Carboniferous (lower) Carboniferous (medial) New Mexico, USA  223
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  238
Spores Carboniferous Permian Devonshire, England  179
Spores Carboniferous Triassic Devonshire, England  179
Fusulinids Carboniferous Triassic Mine, Japan  180
Spores Carboniferous Pleistocene Ohio, USA  181
Spores Carboniferous Permian Yukon, Canada  182
Brachiopods Carboniferous Permian Yukon, Canada  182
Pollen Carboniferous Permian Caucasia, USSR  183
Trilobite "Late Paleozoic" Tertiary Utah, USA  184
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic West Arctic Islands, Canada  185
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Missouri, USA  186
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Canning Basin, Australia  179
Spores Devonian Permian East West Australia  179
Crinoids Devonian Carboniferous Pamir Mts., USSR  187
Conodonts Devonian Silurian Texas, USA  188
Algal Cysts Devonian Cretaceous Northeastern Brazil  189
Pollen Devonian Permian Caucasia, USSR  183
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Yukon, Canada  182
Spores Devonian Permian Yukon, Canada  182
Spores Devonian Pleistocene Ohio, USA  181
Spores Devonian Jurassic West Arctic Islands, Canada  185
Spores Devonian Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  238
Spores Devonian (medial) Devonian (upper) Belorussia, USSR  224
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Kansas, USA  225
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous New Mexico, USA  223
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Graz/Styria, Austria  222
Conodonts Devonian Tertiary Graz/Styria, Austria  222
Conodonts Devonian Pleistocene Graz/Styria, Austria  222
Brachiopods Devonian (lower) Devonian (medial) California, USA  226
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Kazakhstan, USSR  227
Conodonts Devonian Silurian Arkansas, USA  228
Chitinozoans Devonian Jurassic East Bhutan  229
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Nevada, USA  161
Foraminifers Devonian Carboniferous Nevada, USA  161
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Bolivia  143
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Devonshire, England  162
Acritarchs Devonian (and/or older) Carboniferous Newfoundland, Canada   ISO
Spores Devonian Triassic Devon, England  95
Conodonts Devonian Triassic Kockatea, Australia  89
Spores Devonian Cretaceous Otorowiri, Australia  89
Thelodont, Devonian Permian Canning Basin, Australia  89
Acanthodian Fish Scales /Spores Devonian Cretaceous Permian Basin, Australia  89
Pollen Devonian Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 145
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Belgium  98
Conodonts Devonian Permian Texas, USA  99
Algal Cysts Devonian Quaternary Lake Michigan, USA  100
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Texas, USA  101
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA  102
Acritarchs Silurian (and/or older) Devonian Witney, England  163
Acritarchs Silurian Devonian Belgium  98
Conodonts Silurian Carboniferous Oklahoma. USA  102
Pollen "Paleozoic" Precambrian Krivyi Rog, USSR  84
Pollen "Paleozoic" Tertiary Atlantic Ocean  88
Spores "Paleozoic" Tertiary Bolivia  143
Spores "Paleozoic" Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR  166
Spores Silurian Ordovician Ohio. USA  230
Chitinozoans Silurian Jurassic East Bhutan  229
Plant tissue Silurian (and/or younger) Ordovician Oklahoma, USA  190
Acritarchs Silurian Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland  191
Crinoids Silurian Carboniferous Pamir Mts., USSR  187
Algal Cysts Silurian Cretaceous Northeast Brazil  189
Conodonts Silurian Devonian Texas, USA  188
Spores Silurian(?) Devonian Belorussia, USSR  224
Chitinozoans Silurian Cretaceous Alaska, USA  231
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Ontario, Canada  192
Conodonts Ordovician Devonian Minnesota, USA  193
Acritarchs Ordovician Tertiary Lough Neagh, Ireland  194
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Missouri, USA  195
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Carnic Alps, Italy  196
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Quibec, Canada  196
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Central Texas, USA  188
Diacrodians Ordovician Precambrian Saxony, East Germany  197
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Illinois, USA  198
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Illinois, Indiana, USA  199
Acritarchs Ordovician Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland  191
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian Ohio, USA  200
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian New York, USA  200
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Central Siberia, USSR  232
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Southeast Indiana, USA  233
Conodonts Ordovician (lower) Ordovician (medial) West Texas, US  234
Graptolites/ Conodonts/ Conodonts Ordovician Devonian Missouri, USA  103
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian Belgium  98
Acritarchs Ordovician Devonian Netherlands-Belgium  98
Conodonts Ordovician Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 102
Spores Ordovician Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA  94
Conodonts Ordovician Cretaceous Colorado, USA  104
Acritarchs "Lower Paleozoic" Triassic Devonshire, England  95
Archeocyathids Cambrian Permian Dwyka, South Africa  105
Trilobites Cambrian (lower) Cambrian (medial) Bornholm, Denmark  202
Acritarchs Cambrian Silurian Comeragh. Ireland  191
Acritarchs Cambrian Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland  191
Trilobites Cambrian Devonian Bielsko-Mogilany, Poland  203
Acritarchs Cambrian Ordovician Shropshire, England  204
Algae Precambrian Cambrian or Ordovician Verkhoyansk, USSR  205
Spores Precambrian Devonian Saratov, USSR  235



68 Gretener. 1977. op.cit., 1). 116.

69 Woodmorappe. 1980. op.cit., p. 212.

70 Gartner S. and B. Lodz. 1972. Reworking and Apparent reworking of Neogene fossil plankton. MP 18:117.

71 Smit J. 1979. Microdium, Its Earliest Occurrence and other Coilsiderations. MI 22:46.

72 Cherie J.D.E.. De Klasz I.D.E. and E.E. Archibong. 1978. Biostratigraphic Study of the Borehold UJO-1, SW Nigeria, with special Emphasis on the Cretaceous Microflora. MI 21:125.

73 Domack E.W., Fairchild W.W., and J.B. Anderson. 1980. Lower Cretaceous; sediment from East Antarctic continental shelf. NA 287:625-6.

74 Gohabandt K.H.A. 1967. The geologic age of the type locality of Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzebaf). MP 13:70.

75 Haynes J. and A.R.M. El-Naggra. 1964. Reworked Upper Cretaceous and Danian planktonic foraminifera in [lie typeThatittian. MP 10:354-5.

76 Bramlette M.N. and E. Marteni. 1964. The great change in the calcarous nannoplankton fossils between the Maestrichtian and Danian. MP 10:294.

77 Thiede J. 198 1. Reworking of Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic central Pacific deep-sea sediments. NA 289:667-70.

78 Otvis E.G. and W.D. Brock. 1976. Massive Long-Distance Transport and Redeposition of Upper Cretaceous Planktonic Foraminifers in Quaternary Sediment. SP 46:978.

79 Funkhouser J.W. 1969. Factors that Affect Sample Reliability (in Tschudy R.H. and R.A. Scott. 1969. Aspects of Palynology). JW, p. 101.

80 Bramlette M.N. and F.R. Sullivan. 1961. Coccolithophorids and related nannoplankton of the early Tertiary in California. MP 7:133.

81 Jones D.J. 1956. Introduction of Microfossils. Harper Bros, New York, pp. 260-7.

82 Akyol E. 197?. Palynologie Du Permien Infericur De Sariz (Kayseri) Ed De Pamucak Yaylasi (Antalya-Turquie) et Contamination Jurassique Observee, Due Aux Ruisseaux "Pamucak" et "Goynuk". PS 17(l).

83 Phillips L. 1974. Reworked Mesozoic Spores in Tertiary Leaf-Betts on Mull, Scotland. RP 17:221.

84 Krassilov V.A. 1972. (translated 1975). Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants. JW, p. 56-7.

85 Van Morkhoven F.P.C.M. 1962. Post-Paleozoic 0stracoda. EL., Vol 1. p. 126.

86 Sturt B.A., Dalland A., and J.L. Mitchell. 1979. The Age of the Sub Mid-Jurassic Tropical Weathering Profile of Andoya, Northern Norway and the Implications for the Late Palaeozoic Paleogeography in the North Atlantic Region. RU 68(2)527.

87 Muller K.J . and L.C. Mosher. 1971. Post-Triassic Conodonts (in Sweet W.C. and S.M. Bergstrom. 1971. Symposium on Conodont Biostratigraphy. Geological Society of America Memoir 127:467.

88 Wilson L.R. 1964. Recycling, Stratigraphic Leakage, and Faulty Techniques in Palynology. GR 5:429.

89 Veevers J.). 1976. Early Phanerozoic Events on and alongside (lie Australasian-Antarctic Platform. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia 23:203, 190-1.

90 Warrington C. 1979. A Derived Late Permian Palynomorph Assemblage from the Keuper Marl (Late Triassic) of West Somerset. US 1979, 4(3)299.

91 Venkatachala B.S. 1969. Palynology of the Mesozoic Sediments of Kutch. W. Indian, Reworked Permian Pollen from the Upper Jurassic Sediment-A Discussion. Palaeobotanist 18(1)45.

92 Teichert C. and B. Kummel. 1972. Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Kap Stosch Area, East Greenland. CA 20(4)659.

93 Windle T.M.F. 1979. Reworked Carboniferous Spores: An Exampie from the Lower Jurassic of Northeast Scotland. RP 27:174-5.

94 Wilson. 1964. op.cit. p. 428

95 Warrington C. 1971. Palynology of the New Red Sandstone Sequence of the South Devon Coast. US 1971 2(4)307-8.

96 Danilov M.A. and G.V. Kanev. 1979. Discovery of Paleozoic spores in the Central part of the synclonorium of the Vetreny belt of the Baltic Shield. IC 2 1: 1128-9.

97 Muir M.D. 1967. Reworking in Jurassic and Cretaceous Spore Assemblages. RP 5: 148-50.

98 Bless J.M. 1980. Pre-Permian Depositional Environments Around the Brabant Massif in Belgium, the Netherlands. and Germany. Sedimentary Geology 27(1)72, 35, 8-9.

99 Belinken F.H. 1975. Leonardian and Guadalupian (Permian) Conodont Biostraligraphy in Western and Southwestern United States. JP 49:301-2.

100 'Bader R.H. 1981. Stratigraphy, Paleontology. ;,till Palynology of Holocene Deposits in Southwestern Lake Michigan. Unpublished MS Thesis. Northeastern Illinois University, p. 85-90.

101 *'Lindstrom M. 1946. Conodonts EL.. p. 72.

102 "Graysom R. 198 1. Distribution anti Significance (if Allochthonous Conodonts in Early Pennsylvanian rocks of eastern Oklahoma. CA 13(6)279.

103 "Chauff K.M. 1978. Recovery of Ordovician conodonts by hydrochloric acid from phosphate nodules reworked into the Sulphur Springs Formation (Devonian) in Missouri, USA. Geological Magazine 115(3)207-8.

104 Dr. Stif Bergstrom, Professor of Geology, Ohio Stale University. Columbus. Ohio 1980. personal Coil) III till ication ion.

105 Rozanov A. Yu. and F. Debrenne. 1974. Age of Archaeocyathid Assemblages. AJ 274:845.

106 Burdick C.L. 1966. Microflora of the Grand Canyon. RE 3(1)38-50. also: 1972. Progress Report oil Grand Canyon Palynology. RE 9(1)25-30.

107 Bramlette and Sullivan. 196 1. op.cit.. p. 133.

108 Muir. 1967. op.cit., p. 153.

109 Pokorny V. 1965. Principles of Zoological Micropaleontology. Vol. 11, Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York., p. 67.

110 Hass W.I. 1962. Conodonts (in Hass W.H., Hantzchel W., Fisher D.W., Howell B.F., Rhodes F.H.T., Muller K.J., and R.C. Moore. 1962. Miscellanea. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology W38.

111 Lindstrom. 1964. op.cit., p. 73-4.

112 Wilson. 1964. op.cit., p. 427.

113 Muir M.D. and W.A.S. Sarjeant. 1977. Editors Comments (in Muir M.D. and W.A.S. Sarjeant. 1977. Palynology: Part I., Dowden, Hutchinson, anti Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania) p. 223.

114 Bushman J.R. 198 1. Uniformitarianism According to Hutton. journal of Geological Education 29:32-3.

115 Wright C. 1975. Introduction (to Hitchcock E. 1851, reprinted 1975. The Religion of Geology anti Its Connected Sciences. Regina Press, New York) p. 4m.

116 Khain V. Ye. 1963. Lomonosov and Modern Geology. IC 5:714.

117 Sparks J.M. 1978. The apostolic Fathers. Thomas-Nelson Put). Co.. Nashville, New York, p. 41-3.

118 Krauskopf K.B. 1979. Introduction of Geochemistry. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, Sydney. Tokyo, Toronto, p. 435 (2nd Edition).

119 bid, p. 440-1.

120 Williams H. anti A.R. McBirney. 1979. Volcanology Freeman, Cooper, and Co., San Francisco, p. 121-2.

121 Plumstead E.P. 1964. Palaeobotany of Antarctica (in Adie R.J. 1964. Antarctic Geology. JW) 654.

122 Hamilton L.H., Helby R., and G.H. Taylor. 1970. The Occurrence and Significance of Triassic coal in the Volcanic Necks near Sydney. Royal Society of New South Wales journal and Prorerdings 102 (parts 3 and 4) p. 169.

123 Krauskopf. 1979. op.rit., p. 342.

124 'Dickinson W. 1971. Uniformitarianism and Plate Tectonics Science., 174:107.

125 Hunt C.W. 1977. Catastrophic termination of the Last Wisconsin Ice Advance. Observations in Alberta and Idaho. CA 25:456-67.

126 Hunt C.W. 1978. Reply it) L.E. Jackson. CA 26:167.

127 Irvine T.N. 1964. Sedimentary Structures in Layered Ultrabasic Rocks. AG 48:533.

128 Williams L.P. 1973. Review of Steno as Geologist. Aj 273:351.

129 Pattison J.. Smith D.B., and C. Warrington. 1973. A Review of Late Permian and Early Triassic Biostratigraphy in the British Isles (in Logan A. and L.N. Hills. 1973. The Permian and Triassic Systems and Their Mutual Boundary. CA Memoir 2) p. 256.

130 Jodry R.L. 1969. Growth and Dolomitization of Silurian Reefs, St. Clair County, Michigan. AG 53:957.

131 Marvin V.B. 1973. Continental Drift. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C., p. 37-8.

132 Nitecki M.H., Lemke J.L., Pullman H.W., and M.E. Johnson. 1978. Acceptance of plate tectonic theory by geologists. Geology 6:661-4.

133 Neumann R.B. 1981. Review of Historical Biogeography. JP 55(3)693.

134 Marvin. 1973. op.cit., p. 36.

135 Aprodov V.A. 1963. Main Features of Philosophical Materialism in Geological Works of M.V. Lomonosov. IC 5:698.

136 Glaessner M.F. 1967. Principles of Micropaleontology. Hafner Publ. Co.. New York, London, p. 225.

137 Berry W.B.N. and A.J. Boucot. 1973. Correlation of the African Silurian Rocks. Geological Society of American Special Paper 147:60.

138 Cronin J.E.. Boaz N.T., Stringer C.B., and Y. Rak. 1981. Tempo and mode in hominid evolution. NA 292, p. 115.

139 ibid. p. 114-115, 119.

140 ibid, p. 116.

141 Woodmorappe J. 1978. The Cephalopods in the Creation and the Universal Deluge. RE 15(2)97-8. especially Figure 3(i).

142 Kummel B. and C. Teichert. 1970. Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Permian-Triassic Boundary Beds, Salt Range and TransIndus Ranges, West Pakistan (in Kummel B. and C. Teichert. 1970. Stratigraphic Boundary Problems) U. of Kansas Special Publication No. 4), p. 53.

143 Stanley E.A. 1969. The Occurrence and Distribution of Pollen and Spores in Marine Sediments (in Bronnimann P. and H.H. Benz. 1969. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils. Vol. 11. E. Brill, Leiden. pp. 641-3.

144 Brasier M.D. 1980. Microfossils. George Allen and Unwin, London, p. 47.

145 Wilson R.L. 1976. Palynology and evidence for lite origin of [fie Atokak Formation (Pennsylvanian) rocks in the type area. CA 8(1)72-3.

146 Sadowska A. 1975. Uwage o prowadzonych ostatnio badaniach palinologicznych trozecinzedowych osadow ilastych w Sudetach. Kwartalnik Geologiczny 19:725-31 (in Polish).

147 Herngreen G.F.C. 1976. A probable erroneous identification of Tricolporopollenites distinctus Groot et Penny from lowermost Cretaceous strata in the eastern Netherlands. RP 22:34S.

148 Lytshev G.F. 1978. A New Early Oligocene Beaver of the Genus Agnatocastor from Kazakhstan. Paleontological journal. 12:542.

149 Stanley E.A. 1966. the Problem of Reworked Pollen and Spores in Marine Sediments. Marine Geology 4:403.

150 Barss M.S., Bujak J.P., and G.L. Williams. 1979. Palynological Zonation and Correlation of Sixty-Seven Wells, Eastern Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Special Paper 78-2, 118p.

151 Balme B.F. 1970. Palynologyof Permian and Triassic Strata in the Salt Range and Surghar Range, West Pakistan (in Kummel and Teichert. 1970., op.cit.) p. 382.

152 Soukup J., Konzalova M., and Z. Lochmann, 1975. Relikty Cenomanu a toronu V. podlozi miocenu mezy Jarkovem a Novym Sedlem nad Bilanous. Prague:. Ustredni Ustav Geologicky Ventnik Vol. 50(3)141-52 (in Czech).

153 Shumenko S.I. and M.E. Kaplan. 1978. Discovery of Coccoliths in Lower Triassic Deposits of Siberia. DokLady: Earth Sciences 240-226.

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